Software testing is the backbone of any IT product / services company. The industry size is about USD$13 billion globally and is one of the biggest recruiters and job creators in India. Software testing is performed to verify that the completed software package functions according to the expectations defined by the requirements/specifications. The overall objective is to not to find every software bug that exists, but to uncover situations that could negatively impact the customer, usability and/or maintainability.

Software testing activities have long been categorized into levels, and two kinds of levels have traditionally been used. The most often used level categorization is based on traditional software process steps. Although most types of software testing can only be done after some part of the software is implemented, tests can be designed and constructed during all software development steps. The most time consuming parts of testing are actually the test design and construction, so test activities can and should be carried out throughout development. The second level categorization is based on the attitude and thinking of the testers. Here we’ll look at the 4 types of software testing in the former
category.

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Functional Software Testing

One of the primary types of software testing is functional testing. It covers how well the system executes the functions it is supposed to execute—including user commands, data manipulation, searches and business processes, user screens, and integrations. Functional testing covers the obvious surface type of functions, as well as the back-end operations (such as security and how upgrades affect the system). Although functional testing is often done toward the end of the development cycle, it can—and should, say experts—be started much earlier. Individual components and processes can be tested early on, even before it’s possible to do functional testing on the entire system.

Non-Functional Software Testing

Non-functional testing refers to aspects of the software that may not be related to a specific function or user action, such as scalability or other performance, behaviour under certain constraints, or security. Testing will determine the breaking point, the point at which extremes of scalability or performance leads to unstable execution. Non-functional requirements tend to be those that reflect the quality of the product, particularly in the context of the suitability perspective of its users.

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Structural Software Testing

Structural testing is a dynamic technique in which test data selection and evaluation are driven by the goal of covering various characteristics of the code during testing. Assessing such coverage involves the instrumentation of the code to keep track of which characteristics of the program text are actually exercised during testing. The inexpensive cost of such instrumentation has been a prime motivation for adopting this technique. More importantly, structural testing addresses the fact that only the program text reveals the detailed decisions of the programmer. For example, for the sake of efficiency, a programmer might choose to implement a special case that appears nowhere in the specification. The corresponding code will be tested only by chance using functional testing, whereas use of a structural coverage measure such as statement coverage should indicate the need for test data for this case. Structural testing is also known as clear box testing, or glass box testing.

Change Related Software Testing

This type of software testing is related to changes, i.e. confirming that defects have been fixed (confirmation testing or retesting) and looking for unintended changes (regression testing). If we fix a defect in an existing application, we use confirmation testing to test if the defect is removed. It’s possible that because of this defect, or changes to the application, other sections of the application may be affected. Testing that the bug fixes are working properly as per the specification, as well as fixing other features which may be impacted by the initial fixes (conduct impact analysis) is regression testing.

Software Testing has been one of the most stable and lucrative line of professions both within India and abroad. The field is under constant development because of an explosion of new devices and automation, both of which increase the complexity of the testing process. Choose from betterU’s constantly updated software testing courses from top universities here: https://www.betteru.in/courses/software-testing/